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Psychosis: An Introduction to a Jungian Perspective

spiritual_emergency

spiritual_emergency

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The following series of posts were written by me elsewhere. I'm sharing the information here because there may be some who would benefit from this form of treatment.

If you wish to pursue a therapeutic relationship with a Jungian analyst I suggest you make use of your favorite search engine and enter the terms "Jungian+Analyst+Your Town/City" to see if there may be any practicing in or near your location. Note that I am not a Jungian analyst and neither am I in a position to recommend any.


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spiritual_emergency

spiritual_emergency

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A schizophrenic is no longer schizophrenic when he feels understood by someone else.


-- Carl Jung


MICHAEL O'CALLAGHAN: How does one define so-called schizophrenia?

JOHN WEIR PERRY: Jung defined it most succinctly. He said...


"Schizophrenia is a condition in which the dream takes the place of reality." This means that the unconscious overwhelms the ego-consciousness, overwhelms the field of awareness with contents from the deepest unconscious, which take mythic, symbolic form. And the emotions, unless they're hidden, are quite mythic too. To a careful observer, they're quite appropriate to the situation at hand.

The way "schizophrenia" unfolds is that, in a situation of personal crisis, all the psyche's energy is sucked back out of the personal, conscious area, into what we call the archetypal area. Mythic contents thus emerge from the deepest level of the psyche, in order to re-organise the Self. In so doing, the person feels himself withdrawing from the ordinary surroundings, and becomes quite isolated in this dream state.


Source: When the Dream Becomes Real
See also:
- The Role of Metaphor

- What was that you said again? -- A New Look at Psychosis



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spiritual_emergency

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"...85% of our clients (all diagnosed as severely schizophrenic)
at the Diabasis center not only improved, with no medications,
but most went on growing after leaving us."


282052999.jpg

- Dr. John Weir Perry​

Stress may cause highly activated mythic images to erupt from the psyche's deepest levels in the form of turbulent visionary experience. Depending on whether the interactions between the individual and the immediate surroundings lean toward affirmation or invalidation, comprehension of these visions can turn the visionary experience into a step in growth or into a disorder, as an acute psychosis. Based on his clinical and scholarly investigations, John Weir Perry has found and formulated a mental syndrome which, though customarily regarded as acute psychosis, is in actuality a more natural effort of the psyche to mend its imbalances. If the upset is received in the spirit of empathy and understanding, and allowed to run its course, an acute episode can be found to reveal a self-organizing process that has self-healing potential.



Treatment or Therapy?

The medical model of handling the acute "psychotic" episode comes under the classification of what is known as "treatment," which implies doing something to the patients to relieve them of their symptoms, even to cure them. The alternative paradigm I am proposing is based on the concept of a "therapy" that gives respectful heed to the psychic process underlying the symptoms.

The original meaning of the Greek word therapeia was a "waiting upon" or a "service done" to the gods, with implications of tending, nurturing, caring and being an attendant; in time the word was applied to medical care. The original connotation is pertinent to the handling of acute "psychotic" episodes, since the persons going through them are in a state of being overwhelmed by images of gods and other mythic elements. Hence a therapist does well to "be an attendant" (therapeutes) upon these mythic images so as to foster their work. "Treatment" strives to stop what is happening, while "therapy" attempts to move with the underlying process and help achieve the creative aim implicit in it.

Visionary experiences of various kinds, including acute episodes, have a tendency to take six weeks to accomplish their inner aims. It is intriguing to reflect on the connotations of this, for this number is recognizable as forty days, with all this time's connotations. Pacing is an important phenomenon that invites our scrutiny. Our experience indicates that in the acute episode the more floridly disturbed the persons are, the more rapidly they move through it. Intensity seems to correlate directly with favorable outcome. The persons who are frightened, overwhelmed with imagery, and engrossed in their preoccupations are the ones most likely to have a favorable inner experience, from which they emerge with significant change.

When we admit individuals who are at the very onset of their episode and again, at the height of their disordered state, they may be fragmented, often mute, with scattered bits of ideation passing across the mental stage. At this phase of the process the mental content is a hodgepodge and the ego has quit the field, lost in the deep interiors of the psyche. Listening to an individual at this time gives kaleidoscopic glimpses of mythic themes that often leave the listener bewildered. Yet if we sit quietly and attentively with a person in this state for only two or three times, we may find the fragments coalescing into a story that gradually begins to move forward.


Source: Trials of the Visionary Mind

See also:
- Psychosis as Purposive: The Far Side of Madness

- Schizophrenia & The Hero's Journey
Music of the Hour: May it Be


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A

Apotheosis

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Very good links & information. Thank You spiritual_emergency.

I find the Jungian perspective, so much more whole, reasonable, rational, therapeutic & effective in dealing with psychosis. I have searched for a Jungian analyst, there isn't a lot I could find which was suitable locally, & the cost is prohibitive to me.
 
spiritual_emergency

spiritual_emergency

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Maureen Roberts is a Jungian analyst in Australia.


What is Schizophrenia?
A good question, with no simple, short, or straightforward answer, since each sufferer is unique and schizophrenia is a complex phenomenon. In general, schizophrenia is an extremely introverted, psychospiritual mode of perception, or way of relating to the world; or state of consciousness involving (what I have called) 'extreme empathy'. This simultaneous blessing and curse is due to a fragile, fragmented, dead, or lost ego, or conscious personality structure. The normal, ego-enforced boundaries between the self and the world have broken down, such that schizophrenia sufferers - for better and worse - find themselves identifying with everything within their scope of perception. It is because of this ego loss, or 'dis-integration' that psychosis, shamanic initiation and mystical experience are so inextricably bound.

The schizophrenic person may appear to family, friends and doctors to be lacking in emotion, but in reality is in a state of intense empathy, such that extreme sensations of joy and fear are usual. Because of their fragile personal boundaries, schizophrenic folk typically see, hear, sense, perceive and understand things that others are unaware of. Secret, or symbolic meanings are seen and heard in everything, and the schizophrenia sufferer typically feels responsible for the fate of the world.


Is Schizophrenia 'Split Personality'?
Yes . . . and No! Imagine, if you will, that a 3-levelled house represents the structure of the psyche. The top floor, consisting of various linked rooms, represents consciousness, in all its bustling, interacting complexity. Immediately below is the cellar, which represents the personal unconscious, or dark 'shadow' side of the personality. The lowest level, the basement, is the oldest part of the house and contains dim, godlike and archaic figures, personifications of what Jung called 'archetypes', universally occurring, powerful energies and forms of behaviour and thought, which make up what Jung called the 'collective unconscious', and which often take on mythological, religious, semi-human, divine, animal or natural forms. What we call 'split personality' involves the conscious personality forming split off, distinctly separate personalities, so it's as if the upper floor rooms become completely isolated from each other, their doors all locked.

With a schizophrenic split, or fragmentation, however, it's as if the house's floorboards (foundations of the conscious personality) are split, or shattered as invading archetypal figures from the basement rush up to inhabit, or displace the upstairs (conscious) inhabitants. As Jung notes, whereas the healthy person's ego (conscious self) is the subject of his/her experiences, the schizophrenic person's ego is (therefore) only one of several subjects. The nature of the schizophrenic 'split' (which I've called 'split subjectivity') in other words, arises from the splitting of the archetypes of the collective unconscious into a multitude of figures that invade, or usurp the weaker and far more fragile conscious personality. It's a bit like a swimming pool trying to contain the ocean! ...

It is vital for the sufferer's dignity and well-being that his/her whole range of needs - physical, emotional and spiritual - be respected and addressed. The great soul-centred psychiatrist Jung cured his schizophrenic patients with psychotherapy alone, since only in this personal and painstaking way could he unearth the personal story, in which was embedded the trauma, or crisis which had originally triggered the schizophrenic disintegration.

Jungian psychotherapy involves a non-authoritarian, one-to-one personal dialogue which involves drawing on the healing potential within the individual's unconscious, as it expresses itself in schizophrenic dreams, visions, artwork, voices, and other inward experiences. Since schizophrenia taps into the collective unconscious and its powerful and sometimes disturbing archetypal energies, effective psychotherapy usually involves working with mythological, archetypal and religious themes, experiences and imagery, usually with a view to reintegrating the wandered, or dissociated fragments of the personality. What Jung called 'active imagination', a form of guided visualization, can also help 'rewire' the mind and regain a sense of focus and personal identity.

Source: Schizophrenia: The Soul in Crisis

See also: Shamanism & Schizophrenia



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spiritual_emergency

spiritual_emergency

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How to Produce an Acute Schizophrenic Break

To produce a schizophrenic break you need to collapse the ego, preferably as rapidly as possible. There are different ways of defining the ego but I define it thusly: The ego is a structure of the personality that is made up of what we believe to be true about ourselves, others, the world around us, and our place in it. We form these beliefs as based on our relationships, our experiences, the roles we play and the activities we engage in. All of these combined, create our ego -- which is, for most of us, our sense of who we are. I prefer to think of the ego in this regard as the little self.

When the ego collapses, fragments, or disintegrates, shadow and archetypal contents flood in from the personal and collective unconscious. Those are Jungian terms and I use them because it's the best model I've found thus far for explaining this experience to others. During psychosis, what is experienced and what is seen by the people around you, are fragments of the collapsed ego (one's shattered sense of self), shadow material (which produces fear, terror, paranoia, shame, etc.), and archetypal material, such as the sense that one is Jesus Christ, or Buddha, or God... or has just seen one of those figures get into a cab on 49th street.

Yet, each of those religious icons are also symbols of center which is where the larger Self resides. If you make it all the way through the unconscious to the center -- for a little while at least -- you don't just play God, you are God, because there is nothing left at that point to separate the I-from-The-Thou. Within an Eastern framework, this might be called Self-realization or God-realization. In the West, it's called delusions of grandeur.

There are a number of spiritual traditions that work to slowly polish these layers of selfhood away so as to come into contact with the pure source of the Absolute; meditation in the Buddhist tradition or contemplation in the Christian mysteries are two such examples. There are also various drugs that temporarily displace the ego allowing the numinous to shine in -- the use of peyote among Native Americans; LSD among university professors; ayahuasca among shamans of the Amazon. In addition, there are ritual activities one can engage in: kundalini yoga, drumming, chanting, sacred forms of dance, tantric love-making or creating a work of art. Note that none of these activities produce neurological dysfunction, they simply remove the ego -- one's sense of the little self -- from the larger equation.

Falling in love can displace the ego. Losing someone you love can displace the ego. Shock and trauma can displace the ego. Retiring, or losing a job or role you had strongly invested yourself in can displace the ego. All of us have likely had these kind of experiences and we're familiar with the feeling that life feels a bit shaky for a while afterwards. We don't quite know how to be who we believed we were if we're no longer "Joe's wife" or "Director of Internal Affairs" or "Mary's best friend". If we thought of those people, roles, belongings as positive (i.e., we were attached), we experience their departure as losses. We may need to replace them in some form; a new spouse, new friend, or new job, before stability returns and we are back to being "ourselves" once more.

In a matter of months I lost my self-identity as a daughter, my self-identity as a mother, my self-identity as a wife, my self-identity as a worker, and I also lost my community and my two best friends -- external forms of support that otherwise could have helped provide some structure in the midst of those losses. In addition, trauma was interwoven through those events: trauma from my past, trauma in my present, and a trauma that came to be in which many people died and I felt responsible in some twisted way for their deaths. I wasn't, but something doesn't have to be true to believe that it's true.

You cannot try this at home because you require the co-operation of the entire Universe which strips you of most everything that you have loved or believed in, in one relentless blow after another with hardly any time in between to catch your breath, until you really and truly, absolutely cannot stand anymore. This is how you produce rapid ego collapse, which in turn, produces an acute schizophrenic break -- no faulty neurological wiring required.

Source: How To Produce an Acute Schizophrenic Break

Music of the Hour: The World I Know

See also:
- Psychosis & Ego Collapse
- Spirituality & Trauma
- Visionary Experience in Myth & Ritual
- Archetypes & The Individuation Process
- The Unmanifest Absolute



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A

Apotheosis

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Maureen Roberts is a Jungian analyst in Australia.
I spoke with her via E-Mail last year. She was willing to help with telephone calls & even to travel. Unfortunately her prices are very high. Although her site is very good, & full of very good info.
 
spiritual_emergency

spiritual_emergency

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Apotheosis: Unfortunately her prices are very high. Although her site is very good, & full of very good info.

Isn't that too frequently, the case? Fortunately, there is a wealth of information available on the net that can assist others in understanding their experiences. I'm quite fond of books, myself.


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spiritual_emergency

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An article I came across which, although not entirely Jungian in nature, does support the above.


... In our book, Human Givens: A new approach to emotional health and clear thinking, we described how the REM brain state, which underlies dreaming, is separate from the process of dreaming and dream content. It is also clear that the healthy brain is organised to keep the dream process separate from the waking state, which is why we find it so difficult to remember dreams. We have shown how the behaviour of a person in a hypnotic state clearly mirrors phenomena of the REM state, such as muscle paralysis, dissociation, imperviousness to pain, and amnesia for the event after "waking".

A psychotic breakdown is almost always preceded by an overload of stress and severe depression in a person's life, which, as we know, results in excessive REM sleep. We are now convinced that, when people are in psychosis, they are in fact trapped in the REM state, a separate state of consciousness with dreamlike qualities. In other words, schizophrenia is waking reality processed through the dreaming brain.

... In the dream state, which is the province of the right hemisphere of the brain, people are not usually capable of independent thought, the province of the left hemisphere, because the mind is "locked" into the metaphorical script of the dream. But if an individual is trapped in a waking REM state, with waking reality happening around them, there is still likely to be activity in the left hemisphere of the brain.

We suggest that, because the REM state operates through metaphor, the only way it could make sense of these independent left brain thoughts would be to create the metaphor of hearing voices, or being watched, or spied upon by aliens - which easily becomes paranoia. ...

Rapid eye movements are often seen to occur in psychotic states, which, of course, are the defining sign of the REM state. Psychotic patients also very quickly convert thought into sensory experience, with the result that they can become highly emotional almost instantly. When recalling a distressing memory, for example, they can be instantly transported right back into that memory and re-experience the emotions connected with it. That phenomenon, too, is a characteristic of the dream state, when arousals from the emotional brain trigger a thought pattern, in the cortex, which is immediately converted into a sensory metaphor - the dream.

It is not surprising, then, that psychotic patients not only talk in metaphors but live them out, which explains their often bizarre speech and behaviour. ... We suggest that we can use this insight to help people make sense of their psychotic experience. Ordinarily, there is ongoing interplay between the left and right hemispheres of the brain. ...

In our preliminary investigations, using these concepts, we have found that psychotic patients calm down when they realise there is an explanation for what is happening to them. When calm, the psychotic phenomena become less threatening and less intense. Then we can start doing what many traditional third world countries seem to do so much better - re-orientating people towards getting their emotional needs met and creating strong support structures for them.

Read the full article here: Schizophrenia: waking reality processed through the dreaming brain


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A

Apotheosis

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Isn't that too frequently, the case? Fortunately, there is a wealth of information available on the net that can assist others in understanding their experiences. I'm quite fond of books, myself.
Yes books are very good, I enjoy reading as well, & there is a wealth of on-line info. It helps to have this info in easy access for those who are searching. It took me quite some time to find it, some 7 years ago when I first started searching on-line for this stuff.
 
spiritual_emergency

spiritual_emergency

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I was quite pleased to run across the following statement in an article regarding another favorite clinician of mine -- Jaakko Seikkula. Like John Weir Perry, Seikkula has a recovery rate in the range of 80-85%. Jaakko Seikkula is a clinical psychologist/professor, practicing in Norway and Finland.

Psychotic reactions should be seen as attempts to make sense of one's experience and to cope with experiences so difficult that it has not been possible to construct a rational spoken narrative about them. In subsequent stress situation, these experiences may be actualized and a way is found to utter them in the form of a metaphor (Karon, 1999; Penn, 1998; Van der Kolk, 1995). This is the prenarrative quality of psychotic experience (Holma & Aaltonen, 1997; Ricoeur, 1992).

Source: Open dialogues with good and poor outcomes for psychotic crises

It should be emphasized that the common ground Perry and Seikkula share in their approach is their willingness and ability to do psychotherapy with individuals in acute states. For this reason, it's not surprising that they would both identify the value of metaphor as a means of communicating the individual's emotional turmoil and inner experience.

You will not find this emphasis within mainstream approaches where the primary value of psychotic content is as an identified symptom. Beyond that, professionals actively discourage any discussion of delusions and hallucinations out of a perceived fear that they will be encouraging them.


See also:
- Dialogue is the Change

- Learning from Northern Europe



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spiritual_emergency

spiritual_emergency

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Apothoesis: It took me quite some time to find it, some 7 years ago when I first started searching on-line for this stuff.

Likewise, I read through thousands of pages of discussion forums in order to find specific links and information. When I later started my blogs, I focused strictly on sharing the information, not the hours of conversations I went through to find the info.


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spiritual_emergency

spiritual_emergency

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~*~

In a dark time, the eye begins to see,
I meet my shadow in the deepening shade;
I hear my echo in the echoing wood--
A lord of nature weeping to a tree.
I live between the heron and the wren,
Beasts of the hill and serpents of the den.

What's madness but nobility of soul
At odds with circumstance? The day's on fire!
I know the purity of pure despair,
My shadow pinned against a sweating wall,
That place among the rocks--is it a cave,
Or winding path? The edge is what I have.

A steady stream of correspondences!
A night flowing with birds, a ragged moon,
And in broad day the midnight come again!
A man goes far to find out what he is--
Death of the self in a long, tearless night,
All natural shapes blazing unnatural light.

Dark, dark my light, and darker my desire.
My soul, like some heat-maddened summer fly,
Keeps buzzing at the sill. Which I is I?
A fallen man, I climb out of my fear.
The mind enters itself, and God the mind,
And one is One, free in the tearing wind.

Theodore Roethke




Music of the Hour: Remember When it Rained



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spiritual_emergency

spiritual_emergency

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~*~​

This conversation would hardly be complete without introducing the concept of projection. For those who may not be familiar with the term, I'll try to use an example that readers will likely be able to identify with...

Imagine that I am an individual who has never known someone who carries the diagnosis of schizophrenia. In this way, I'm largely ignorant of the realities but I may have read some stories in the newspapers and seen some movies about "crazy people" so I have an idea, an image of what a "schizophrenic" is.

Now, imagine that you introduce yourself to me and share that you are a "schizophrenic". At this point, chances are very good that you will trigger the image I carry of what a "schizophrenic" is. Now, this image of my creation comes to life and stands between us. I no longer see you -- I only see my image, my perception of what you are, and this is what I relate to instead of you. I am engaged in the psychological act of projecting. Within Buddhist terms this might be referred to as maya -- an illusion. Many of you may know it a little more intimately as "stigma".

In order for a projection to be held in place there must be a common ground, a "hook" must be presented that will hold the projection in place. In this case, the "hook" would be your admission that you are "schizophrenic". If you had introduced yourself as a "Baptist" or "Republican" you might have triggered an entirely different projection as based on my understanding of what "Baptists" or "Republicans" are but that is neither here nor there.

Understanding how the psychological function of projection works may help an individual to dismantle their "hallucinations". A case in point...

A "schizophrenic" I once knew told me the following story. He wanted a hamburger so he drove to the nearest take-out. As he was paying the cashier, her face suddenly turned into the face of "the devil" and he became enormously frightened; he wondered if he needed to take any action to protect himself.

It would take a bit of knowledge of that man's personal history to know that his first wife had cheated on him and later dissolved the marriage. This was something that had been deeply humiliating and traumatic to him and in his mind, she was the equivalent of "the devil". The hapless cashier had unknowingly triggered his projection as a result of some common ground she shared with his first wife. Maybe the name on her name tag was the same as his first wife's, maybe she styled her hair in a similar manner... Whatever it was, with that common ground in place she presented a "hook" for him to hang his projection upon. An illusion was created and he stopped relating to who she really was and instead, began to relate to his projection.

Although the imagery is of a general, archetypal nature (imagery that pertains to all men and all times), it also symbolizes the key issues of the individual undergoing the crisis. Therefore, once lived through on this mythic plane, and once the process of withdrawal nears its end, the images must be linked to specific problems of daily life. Thus, the archetypal affect-images await a reconnection to their natural context: to the personal psychological complexes (which tend to be externally projected).

Source: Psychosis as Purposive: The Far Side of Madness

For the man to unravel that particular "hallucination" he needed to understand and accept that the cashier was not his wife. She wasn't going to leave him, or shame him, or break his heart -- she was just a college student in a part-time job who was hoping for a tip. Ideally, he would also work through any remaining grief or shame as related to the demise of his first marriage so he would no longer be at risk of becoming "hooked" again in a similar situation.

In my own situation, the first blow to my ego structure came when my mother died but the one symptom that wasn't covered in Kubler-Ross's standard descriptions of the grief process was terror -- I couldn't understand where mine had come from. In order to understand why my mother's death would produce terror in me it would be necessary to know that my birth father was extremely abusive. My mother left him the night he tried to kill his children but for many months after, he continued to stalk her and she lived in fear of her life and the lives of her children.

All of this occurred in my own life at a pre-verbal state which might be why voices did not play any significant role in my experience. All I knew was that my mother died and the world suddenly became a very frightening place. This included being frightened of a very specific kind of male -- the kind who would share some characteristic in common with my birth father and thus present me with a "hook" that I could project all my unaddressed fears upon. For me to get well, I had to address the root cause and come to terms with my past. My world is no longer a terrifying place as a result.

Whatever you see, however terrifying it is, recognise it as your own projection; recognise it as the luminosity, the natural radiance of your own mind.

Source: The Therapeutic Psychology of the Tibetan Book of the Dead

As a general rule of thumb, and using the Jungian model above, if your "hallucinations" produce negative emotions -- fear, terror, shame, horror -- they are likely arising from the territory of the shadow or the negative anima/animus. If your "hallucinations" produce positive emotions they may be arising from either the positive anima/animus or the Self. Bear in mind that the unconscious contains relics from both your personal unconscious and the collective unconscious which in turn, may produce an internal image that can be triggered and projected upon something else in your environment. A person, a sound, a smell... that's the common ground that can produce a "hook". When the image and the hook get together a projection is created in your internal or external world that appears to be real -- even if it's just an illusion.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------​

Not everyone who undergoes psychosis or a schizophrenic episode will identity with the above -- there are different forms of schizophrenia and there are multiple forms of personal experience.

If anything in the above rings true for you however, you may want to explore Jungian based therapy and the concept of psychological projection in more depth. The primary purpose of turning towards psychosis with a Jungian eye is in order to process the meaning in the psychosis. Just as every experience is different, so too, some people feel far more comfortable putting their experience behind them. Still others, find tremendous value in examining and unpacking their experience.

It may be helpful to work with a therapist, possibly a Jungian if you can afford one and can find one in your geographical location. In some cases, a therapist with a good grounding in trauma theory may be more appropriate. If you can't afford/find a therapist (I certainly couldn't) there remains a number of books, websites and other online resource options that can help you understand your experience.

If anything I've said has been useful to you, I suggest you pick it up and carry it with you. If it wasn't, I suggest you leave it where you found it.


~ Namaste


See also:

- Major Archetypes & The Individuation Process

- The Process of Individuation

- Shadow Work

- Shadow Projection: The Fuel of War



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spiritual_emergency

spiritual_emergency

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An interesting excerpt I came across in my wanderings in regard to Freud, psychoanalysis and psychosis/schizophrenia...

Smith’s description of psychoanalytic contributions to understanding psychosis is significantly ill-informed, and lacking in depth. Firstly, he incorrectly asserts that Freud advised against psychoanalysts from approaching the problem of psychosis. It is widely known in psychoanalytic circles, that Freud encouraged such exploration (e.g., Freud in his 1925 paper “An autobiographical study”, noted:“...since the analysts have never relaxed their efforts to come to an understanding of the psychosis...they have managed now in this phase and now in that, to get a glimpse beyond the wall.”) and made cogent observations on the psychotic process.

Freud, in his 1911 paper “Psycho-Analytic Notes on an Autobiographical Account of a Case of Paranoia (Dementia Paranoides” analyzed the illness narrative of Daniel Paul Schreber (1903), Memoirs of my Nervous Illness. Freud emphasized the withdrawal of emotional, libidinal investment in external reality in psychosis which could lead to an internal catastrophe signified in a delusion of world destruction. The latter is a restitutional attempt at self-cure of the extensive de-cathexis: “The delusional formation, which we take to be the pathological product, is in reality an attempt at recovery, a process of reconstruction”.

Freud, in his 1924 paper “Neurosis and Psychosis,” noted: [the ego may be able to avoid collapse] by deforming itself, by submitting to encroachments on its own unity and even perhaps effecting a cleavage or division of itself."


Source: Hearing Voices

The bolded quote was what caught my eye. It's remarkably similar to John Weir Perry's observations as well as the quote by Jung that opens this discussion.


See also:
- The Inner Apocalypse
- Visionary Experience in Myth & Ritual
- Mental Breakdown as Healing



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