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Is schizotypal personality disorder related to schizophrenia?

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Megsmith

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Jul 2, 2011
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If so, in what ways are they related?For example is there a higher chance of someone developing schizotypal pd if they have first-degree relatives with schizophrenia?Thanks in advance.
 
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firemonkee57

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Mar 23, 2009
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8,216
Genetic Causes

Although listed in the DSM-IV-TR on Axis II, schizotypal personality disorder is widely understood to be a "schizophrenia spectrum" disorder. If you look at the relatives of individuals who have been diagnosed with schizophrenia, rates of schizotypal PD will be much higher in those individuals than in the relatives of people with other mental illnesses or in the relatives of community controls with no mental illness. Technically speaking, schizotypal PD is an "extended phenotype" that helps geneticists track the familial or genetic transmission of the genes that are implicated in schizophrenia. There are dozens of studies showing that individuals with schizotypal PD look similar to individuals with schizophrenia on a very wide range of neuropsychological tests. Cognitive deficits in patients with schizotypal PD are very similar to, but somewhat milder than, those for patients with schizophrenia.

The DSM-IV™ indicates that StPD is more prevalent among the first-degree relatives of individuals with schizophrenia than among the general population (DSM-IV™, 1994, p. 643). Seiver also notes that many family members of schizophrenic patients are eccentric and socially isolated; he states that research supports the idea of familial transmission of schizotypal personality disorder similar to that of other schizophrenia-related disorders (Seiver, Livesley, ed., 1995, p. 77). StPD has a relatively stable course; only a small proportion of individuals with StPD go on to develop schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders (DSM-IV, 1994, p. 643).


http://schizotypaldisorder.webs.com/schizotypaldisorder.htm
 
V

V.A.L.I.S.

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From link

Social & Environmental Causes

People with schizotypal PD, like patients with schizophrenia, may be quite sensitive to interpersonal criticism and hostility, and there is now evidence to suggest that parenting styles, early separation and early childhood neglect can lead to the development of schizotypal traits.

It has been speculated that the schizotypal individual develops a fear of, strong objection to, or incapacity for social interaction, due to the sum of their past social experiences being negative in nature. That as infants they do not learn how to interact with others, and as children and adults this inability quickly makes them a target for other people. Eventually, the individual learns (most often unconsciously) to see people as harmful and a source of negativity, suffering and ostracization. This leads to the development of "ideas of reference," in which the schizotypal individual believes that events are of special relevance to them or that benign events are somehow related to them (e.g., sees two people laughing and believes that the people are laughing at them). The individual may realize that their ideas of reference are irrational, but maintains them nonetheless. This exacerbates the individual's social anxiety, causing them to skew away from society and withdraw into their own world.

The exact reason or cause of this impairment is unknown. Some experts contend that childhood abuse, neglect or stress results in the brain dysfunction that gives rise to schizotypal symptoms. Both genetics and environmental circumstances appear to play a role in development of the disorder.

A family history — such as having a parent who has schizophrenia or schizotypal personality disorder — increases your chances of developing the condition. A number of environmental factors also may contribute, such as a neglectful or abusive childhood home.

Like most types of personality disorders, the cause of schizotypal personality disorder is unknown. Researchers have suggested that the personality disorder is closely related to schizophrenia, and schizotypal personality disorder is more common in families with a history of schizophrenia. This connection has suggested a genetic basis for schizotypal personality disorder, but definitive proof of a genetic cause has yet to be found.

Risk Factors

Personality development is mostly affected by genetic tendencies. Environmental factors, such as stressful childhood experiences, also may play a role. Factors that increase the risk of developing the schizotypal personality disorder include:

Having a relative who has schizophrenia
Living in a childhood environment of deprivation or neglect
Experiencing child abuse or mistreatment
Undergoing a childhood trauma
Having an emotionally detached parent

Etiology

The precise etiology of schizotypal personality disorder is not known.
 
R

rainack

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Apr 10, 2012
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It seems in short
schizophrenia is psychotic disorder
schizotypal is personality disorder

I dont know if schizotypal can have psychotic parts,
 
F

firemonkee57

Well-known member
Joined
Mar 23, 2009
Messages
8,216
It seems in short
schizophrenia is psychotic disorder
schizotypal is personality disorder

I dont know if schizotypal can have psychotic parts,
Schizotypal is classified as a personality disorder in DSM but ICD classes it with 'schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders' as a non PD.

Psychosis can occur but it is less frequent and intense than in schizophrenia .
 
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rainack

Well-known member
Joined
Apr 10, 2012
Messages
235
Location
UK>leeds>
Schizotypal is classified as a personality disorder in DSM but ICD classes it with 'schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders' as a non PD.

Psychosis can occur but it is less frequent and intense than in schizophrenia .
There seems to be some contradiction, I've also seen schizoaffective classed as a mood disorder as well as a psychotic disorder by some foreign classifications (U.S). as british psych will say it's a mood disorder with psychotic symptoms.
 
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