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      Default The Myth of Schizophrenia as a Progressive Brain Disease

      December 30, 2013

      http://www.madinamerica.com/2013/12/...brain-disease/

      Noted schizophrenia researchers Robin Murray, Robert Zipursky and Thomas Reilly write in Schizophrenia Bulletin that “mental health professionals need to join with patients and their families in understanding that schizophrenia is not a malignant disease that inevitably deteriorates over time but rather one from which most people can achieve a substantial degree of recovery.”

      The Myth of Schizophrenia as a Progressive Brain Disease

      Abstract

      Schizophrenia has historically been considered to be a deteriorating disease, a view reinforced by recent MRI findings of progressive brain tissue loss over the early years of illness. On the other hand, the notion that recovery from schizophrenia is possible is increasingly embraced by consumer and family groups. This review critically examines the evidence from longitudinal studies of (1) clinical outcomes, (2) MRI brain volumes, and (3) cognitive functioning. First, the evidence shows that although approximately 25% of people with schizophrenia have a poor long-term outcome, few of these show the incremental loss of function that is characteristic of neurodegenerative illnesses. Second, MRI studies demonstrate subtle developmental abnormalities at first onset of psychosis and then further decreases in brain tissue volumes; however, these latter decreases are explicable by the effects of antipsychotic medication, substance abuse, and other secondary factors. Third, while patients do show cognitive deficits compared with controls, cognitive functioning does not appear to deteriorate over time. The majority of people with schizophrenia have the potential to achieve long-term remission and functional recovery. The fact that some experience deterioration in functioning over time may reflect poor access, or adherence, to treatment, the effects of concurrent conditions, and social and financial impoverishment. Mental health professionals need to join with patients and their families in understanding that schizophrenia is not a malignant disease that inevitably deteriorates over time but rather one from which most people can achieve a substantial degree of recovery.

      [Full Article in Link]
      Last edited by cpuusage; 31-12-13 at 09:47.
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      Senior Member cpuusage's Avatar
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      Is Schizophrenia Really a Brain Disease? | Brain Blogger

      In spite of over a hundred years of research and many billions of dollars spent, we still have no clear evidence that schizophrenia and other related psychotic disorders are the result of a diseased brain. Considering the famous PET scan and MRI scan images of “schizophrenic” brains and the regular press releases of the latest discoveries of one particular abnormal brain feature or another, this statement is likely to come as a surprise to some, and disregarded as absurdity by others. And yet, anyone who takes a close look at the actual research will simply not be able to honestly say otherwise. And not only does the brain disease hypothesis remain unsubstantiated, it has been directly countered by very well established findings within the recovery research, it has demonstrated itself to be particularly harmful to those so diagnosed (often leading to a self-fulfilling prophecy), and is highly profitable to the pharmaceutical and psychiatric industries (which likely plays a major role in why it has remained so deeply entrenched in society for so many years, in spite of our inability to validate it).

      Deconstructing the Myths of Madness

      The claim I am making here clearly runs counter to the mainstream understanding of schizophrenia, but we find that it’s a relatively straightforward task to back up this claim. We simply need to take the time to extract the actual research findings from the unsubstantiated assumptions and propaganda that are so often used to back up the brain disease hypothesis. I’ll go through the largest of these here:

      Hypothesis #1: Schizophrenia is caused by a biochemical imbalance within the brain

      This theory originated from the observation that drugs which block the transmission of the neurotransmitter dopamine within the brain (so called “antipsychotics,” originally referred to as “major tranquilizers”) appear to reduce the symptoms of schizophrenia. The reasoning behind the origin of this hypothesis was, since schizophrenic symptoms are reduced when dopamine transmission is suppressed, then perhaps schizophrenia is caused by too excessive dopamine within the brain.

      This hypothesis originally appeared quite plausible; however, it has since been seriously discredited:

      First, although it is known that an individual’s dopamine receptors (the type of receptors most affected by antipsychotic drugs) are completely blocked within hours of consuming a sufficient dose of an antipsychotic drug, the actual antipsychotic effects often do not become apparent for up to several weeks(even though a significant degree of apathy towards one’s psychotic experiences often does kick in quickly, as would be expected with any kind of tranquilizer). If psychotic symptoms are the direct result of too much dopamine, then why don’t we see a more immediate abatement of these symptoms as soon as the dopamine levels have been effectively reduced?

      Second, with the introduction of PET and MRI scans, the dopamine hypothesis was apparently substantiated when it was recognized that many “schizophrenic” brains do indeed seem to be set up to transmit excessive dopamine. However, it was eventually realized that the vast majority of brains studied had been exposed to long-term antipsychotic drugs, and it’s since been established that the effects of these drugs alone may very well account for these anomalies.

      Finally, even many of the proponents of this theory have been forced to acknowledge that we still have not found any clear biochemical imbalance that we can associate consistently with schizophrenia or any of the “mental illness” diagnoses, and that all we can really say for sure is that psychiatric drugs themselves (and virtually any psychoactive drug, for that matter) does lead to the development of a biochemical imbalance in one’s brain.

      Hypothesis #2: Schizophrenia is caused by anomalous brain structures

      This hypothesis essentially states that schizophrenia is a disease caused by something wrong with the actual structure of one’s brain, specifically with regard to the relative size of the cerebral cortex and/or other nearby regions of the brain. This hypothesis is generally supported by the actual findings of such anomalies of the brains of those so diagnosed. But again, upon closer scrutiny of the research, we find an empty hypothesis that quickly crumbles away:

      First, we have discovered that there are many different factors that can lead to these abnormalities, including: depression, alcoholism, early childhood trauma, water retention, pregnancy, advancing age, variations in educational achievement, social class, ethnicity, and head size. It was also discovered that the sizes of these regions of the brain can fluctuate quite rapidly within even healthy individuals, leading to varying results even within the same individual. And once again, what do you imagine we have found that is probably the most relevant factor causing such anomalies in the brain? You guessed it… the use of antipsychotic drugs themselves. And virtually all of the research that has discovered such brain anomalies in those diagnosed with schizophrenia did not account for this very important factor, meaning that once again, most of the brains studied had most likely been affected by the long-term use of antipsychotic drugs.

      A second serious challenge to the validity of the abnormal brain structure hypothesis came when it was recognized that the majority of those diagnosed with schizophrenia do not show any obvious brain abnormality at all. Lewine found that “there is no brain abnormality in schizophrenia that characterizes more than 20-33% of any given sample. The brains of the majority of individuals with schizophrenia are normal as far as researchers can tell at present [emphasis added]”; and this in spite of the fact that most of these participants were likely exposed to other brain changing factors such as trauma and/or antipsychotic medications. Conversely, it is common to find healthy individuals who have no schizophrenic symptoms at all and yet have brain abnormalities similar to those sometimes found in schizophrenics.

      Hypothesis #3: Schizophrenia is a Genetic Disorder

      This hypothesis is in close alignment with the two brain disease hypotheses (above) and suggests that this brain disease is transmitted genetically. But again we find some serious problems with the assumptions that have given rise to this hypothesis:

      This hypothesis is based on a small handful of twin and adoption studies conducted many decades ago which, even when we ignore the many serious methodological flaws with these studies, the only conclusion that can actually be drawn from them is that there may be a hereditary component in one’s susceptibility to developing psychosis. However, this is not any different than the findings that there may be a hereditary component in intelligence, shyness, and other psychological characteristics that clearly are not indicative of any kind of physiological disease. In other words, it’s an illogical leap to assume that a hereditary predisposition for a psychological trait or experience must imply biological disease. Yes, there does seem to be some evidence that some of us may be born with a temperament or other psychological characteristics which make us more vulnerable to experiencing psychosis at some point in our life; but no, this evidence does not lend any validity to the hypothesis that schizophrenia is a genetically transmitted biological disease.

      Another important area of research discrediting the “genetic disease” hypothesis is the far more substantial research showing high correlations with environmental (non-hereditary) factors and the development of psychosis/schizophrenia. For example, One study looked at 524 child guidance clinic attendees over 30 years and discovered that 35% of those later diagnosed with schizophrenia had been removed from their homes due to neglect, a percentage twice as high as that for any other diagnostic category; another study found that 46% of women hospitalized for psychosis had been victims of incest; another study of child inpatients found that 77% of those who had been sexually abused were diagnosed psychotic compared to only 10% of those who had not been so abused; and yet another study found that 83% of men and women who were diagnosed with schizophrenia had suffered significant childhood sexual abuse, childhood physical abuse, and/or emotional neglect. Bertram Karon, researcher and acclaimed psychosis psychotherapist, has found evidence of a high correlation between the experience of intense feelings of loneliness and terror within childhood and the later onset of schizophrenia, a finding that is clearly closely related to the findings of these other studies.

      Even the strongest proponents of the brain disease hypothesis acknowledge that it has not yet been validated

      The National Institute of Mental Health, on its Schizophrenia home page, proclaims confidently that “schizophrenia is a chronic, severe, and disabling brain disorder”, a statement you find on nearly every major page or publication they have put out on the topic; and yet if you spend a little more time looking through their literature, you will find that they admit that “the causes of schizophrenia are still unknown”. Similarly, the American Psychiatric Association also confidently proclaims that “schizophrenia is a chronic brain disorder”, but then they acknowledge on the very same page that “scientists do not yet know which factors produce the illness”, and that “the origin of schizophrenia has not been identified”. The strong bias towards the brain disease theory is clearly evident in the literature of these and other similar organizations, and yet the message comes through loud and clear that we still do not know the cause of schizophrenia. Even the U.S. Surgeon General began his report on the etiology of schizophrenia with the words, “The cause of schizophrenia has not yet been determined”. It would appear, then, that it is simply not appropriate to claim with such confidence that schizophrenia is the result of a brain disorder.

      If schizophrenia really is a brain disease, then how do we account for the relatively high rates of full recovery from it?

      The recovery research is extremely robust: Many people experience full and lasting recovery after having been diagnosed with schizophrenia. We see this evidence in the vast majority of the longitudinal recovery studies (See Chapter 4 in my book, Rethinking Madness, for a complete list of all major longitudinal studies), including those conducted by the National Institute of Mental Health and the World Health Organization. There is evidence of spontaneous recovery in between 5% and 71% of cases, depending upon the country of origin and other factors, and even as high as 82% with certain psychosocial interventions. It is illuminating to compare the high recovery rate for schizophrenia with the recovery rate for well-established diseases of the brain such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, or multiple sclerosis: There is no well documented evidence of even a single individual making a full recovery from any of these well-established diseases of the brain.

      The mainstream paradigm of care may actually be creating a self-fulfilling prophecy of brain disease

      A tragic result of the entrenched belief that schizophrenia is caused by a disease of the brain is that, whether or not schizophrenia is ever determined to be a disease of the brain, our mainstream paradigm of care is actually ensuring that enormous numbers of people actually do develop such a disease (see the figure; I will also discuss this in more detail in a future blog).

      So what does cause schizophrenia?

      So, if schizophrenia is not caused by a disease of the brain, then the obvious question that arises is, “Well, then what does cause it?” This is an extremely important yet somewhat complex question, which I address in great detail in my book, Rethinking Madness, and which I will try to capture in a nutshell (or perhaps several nutshells) in future blog postings within this series.
      For a much more thorough discussion of these and closely related topics, as well as a detailed discussion of the finding of Dr. Williams’ own recovery research, you can find Dr. Williams’ book, Rethinking Madness (Sky’s Edge Publishing), on Amazon and other major retailers. More information is available at Home - Rethinking Madness

      References

      American Psychiatric Association [APA]. (2010). Schizophrenia. Healthy Minds, Healthy Lives [website].

      Beck JC, & van der Kolk B (1987). Reports of childhood incest and current behavior of chronically hospitalized psychotic women. The American journal of psychiatry, 144 (11), 1474-6 PMID: 3674230

      Harrow M, & Jobe TH (2007). Factors involved in outcome and recovery in schizophrenia patients not on antipsychotic medications: a 15-year multifollow-up study. The Journal of nervous and mental disease, 195 (5), 406-14 PMID: 17502806

      Harrow M, Jobe TH, & Faull RN (2012). Do all schizophrenia patients need antipsychotic treatment continuously throughout their lifetime? A 20-year longitudinal study. Psychological medicine, 1-11 PMID: 22340278

      Honig A, Romme MA, Ensink BJ, Escher SD, Pennings MH, & deVries MW (1998). Auditory hallucinations: a comparison between patients and nonpatients. The Journal of nervous and mental disease, 186 (10), 646-51 PMID: 9788642

      Hopper, K., Harrison, G., Janca, A., & Sartorius, N. (2007). Recovery from schizophrenia: An international perspective: A report from the WHO Collaborative Project, The International Study of schizophrenia. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

      Joseph, J. (2004). Schizophrenia and heredity: Why the emperor has no genes. In J. Read, L. R. Mosher, & R. P. Bentall (Eds.), Models of madness: Psychological, social and biological approaches to schizophrenia (pp. 67-83). New York, NY: Routledge.

      Karon BP (2003). The tragedy of schizophrenia without psychotherapy. The journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry, 31 (1), 89-118 PMID: 12722890

      Lewine, R. (1998). Epilogue. In M. F. Lenzenweger & R. H. Dworkin (Eds.), Origin and development of schizophrenia (pp. 493-503). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

      Livingston, R. (1987). Sexually and physically abused children. The Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 26: 413-415.

      Mosher LR (1999). Soteria and other alternatives to acute psychiatric hospitalization: a personal and professional review. The Journal of nervous and mental disease, 187 (3), 142-9 PMID: 10086470

      National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH]. (2010a). Schizophrenia.

      National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH]. (2010b). How is schizophrenia treated.

      Read, J. (2004). Biological psychiatry’s lost cause. In J. Read, L. R. Mosher, & R. P. Bentall, (Eds.), Models of madness: Psychological, social and biological approaches to schizophrenia (pp. 57-65). New York: Routledge.

      Robins, L. (1974). Deviant children grown up: A sociological and psychiatric study of sociopathic personality. Malabar, FL: R. E. Krieger Pub. Co.

      Satcher, D. (1999). Etiology of schizophrenia.

      Seikkula, J., Aaltonen, J., Alakare, B., Haarakangas, K., Keränen, J., & Lehtinen, K. (2006). Five-year experience of first-episode nonaffective psychosis in open-dialogue approach: Treatment principles, follow-up outcomes, and two case studies. Psychotherapy Research, 16(2), 214-228. doi: 10.1080/10503300500268490.

      Siebert, A. (1999). Brain disease hypothesis for schizophrenia disconfirmed by all evidence.

      Woodruff, P. W. R., & Lewis, S. (1996). Structural brain imaging in schizophrenia. In S. Lewis & N. Higgins (Eds.), Brain imaging in psychiatry. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
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      It is hard to get your case across to many of those who treat mental health. They are less optimistic than your case is and often make negative assumptions about their patients that are not true. Their patients every abnormal thought and behavior is presumed to be symptom of a disease. How can you influence them and change their minds who are so stuck in their ways?

      I believe that schizophrenia can be treated and dealt with so that the individual with schizophrenia can handle the difficulties of life. This involves proper treatment by mental health professionals including the use of proper medication if necessary and giving most of all respect and understanding to each individual on a case by case basis. To lump all cases of schizophrenia together and say that they are all the same is being ignorant of the individual. Some may get worse over time, maybe more so if not treated properly, while others may get better if the individual is properly treated and understood.

      It depends on the individual and the treatment provider. If both work together well and cooperate, then I see optimism toward the recovery of the patient with schizophrenia. If treatment providers just want to shut the person up in a hospital or load them down with medication to subdue them, I believe that is the negative way.

      Schizophrenia is a disorder of the mind. People with schizophrenia have problems with reality. Whether or not this is due to a disease of the brain is not really clear. Genetics, brain structures, and chemical balances may have some role in the disorder, such as whether it is passed on from generation to generation. There are many other factors that may cause or trigger schizophrenia, such as drug use, social factors, or catching it from someone who has the disorder. None of these answers are exact science.

      I hope that the true causes of the disorder can be found and dealt with and people who have schizophrenia can be treated so they can live normal lives.
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      Quote Originally Posted by cpuusage View Post
      December 30, 2013

      The Myth of Schizophrenia as a Progressive Brain Disease | Mad In America

      Noted schizophrenia researchers Robin Murray, Robert Zipursky and Thomas Reilly write in Schizophrenia Bulletin that “mental health professionals need to join with patients and their families in understanding that schizophrenia is not a malignant disease that inevitably deteriorates over time but rather one from which most people can achieve a substantial degree of recovery.”

      The Myth of Schizophrenia as a Progressive Brain Disease

      Abstract

      Schizophrenia has historically been considered to be a deteriorating disease, a view reinforced by recent MRI findings of progressive brain tissue loss over the early years of illness. On the other hand, the notion that recovery from schizophrenia is possible is increasingly embraced by consumer and family groups. This review critically examines the evidence from longitudinal studies of (1) clinical outcomes, (2) MRI brain volumes, and (3) cognitive functioning. First, the evidence shows that although approximately 25% of people with schizophrenia have a poor long-term outcome, few of these show the incremental loss of function that is characteristic of neurodegenerative illnesses. Second, MRI studies demonstrate subtle developmental abnormalities at first onset of psychosis and then further decreases in brain tissue volumes; however, these latter decreases are explicable by the effects of antipsychotic medication, substance abuse, and other secondary factors. Third, while patients do show cognitive deficits compared with controls, cognitive functioning does not appear to deteriorate over time. The majority of people with schizophrenia have the potential to achieve long-term remission and functional recovery. The fact that some experience deterioration in functioning over time may reflect poor access, or adherence, to treatment, the effects of concurrent conditions, and social and financial impoverishment. Mental health professionals need to join with patients and their families in understanding that schizophrenia is not a malignant disease that inevitably deteriorates over time but rather one from which most people can achieve a substantial degree of recovery.

      [Full Article in Link]
      " The majority of people with schizophrenia have the potential to achieve long-term remission and functional recovery."

      I'm seriously disappointed now, I'd convinced myself schizophrenia was a myth and a nonexistent condition. How can I achieve long-term remission and functional recovery from something that doesn't exist? I'll have to have a can of Guinness and a smoke and think about that one.

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      Quote Originally Posted by BillFish View Post
      I'm seriously disappointed now, I'd convinced myself schizophrenia was a myth and a nonexistent condition. How can I achieve long-term remission and functional recovery from something that doesn't exist? I'll have to have a can of Guinness and a smoke and think about that one.
      I'm seriously disappointed now, I'd convinced myself schizophrenia was a myth and a nonexistent condition in regards to it being a brain disease. How can I achieve long-term remission and functional recovery from something that doesn't exist as a brain disease? I'll have to have a can of Guinness and a smoke and think about that one.

      Have a good think & then get back to us.
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      How can someone know so much about something unknown?
      “No one is useless in this world who lightens the burdens of another.”
      ― Charles Dickens

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      Quote Originally Posted by Mark_01 View Post
      How can someone know so much about something unknown?
      i'm not sure that anyone really does. But what makes more rational sense - To assume that it's all primarily a brain condition/disease - or that what people experience covers a far broader area that includes the psychological, social & transpersonal, as well as aspects of the biological? The issue i take, & i know that a lot of others do too, is this insistence that it's all a brain condition - despite all evidence to the contrary/lack of supporting evidence for the biological model. i feel that things can be understood far better, & more comprehensibly, from more humane & deeper understandings. To assume/conclude that 'it's' all some mysterious brain/biologic condition, i feel is false, & has been proved to be false. That isn't to say that there isn't physiological (biologic) dynamics within it all, as i'm sure that there are in some way. But surely it makes more sense to view these conditions/experiences from a far wider perspective?

      “A theory that is wrong is considered preferable to admitting our ignorance.” – Elliot Vallenstein, Ph.D

      Surely that is a madness in itself?
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      [“A theory that is wrong is considered preferable to admitting our ignorance.” – Elliot Vallenstein, Ph.D

      Surely that is a madness in itself?[/QUOTE]


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